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September 14, 2018

Everything You Should Know About Antartica

Antartica.....is This word feel strange in your ear. I hope not because you should know what is it, i mean the history, characteristic and many more. Maybe, we often hear and see in various media about the North Pole (Artic). Yes, the North Pole is more 'popular' than the South Pole because it is more often explored and reported. In addition, geographical proximity to developed countries makes it no longer a place full of mystery.  Yes that make a sense, because no one with no purpose doesn't belong to be there. Yes you don't want to lost in strange place with no one inside of it, right? that was not a zoo or something that you can visit sometimes, that was a place with less of ecosystem which will make you die suffering at there. I am not scare you but this is a fact, not theory so throw up your wish to go to this place.

In fact, Antarctica, which is located in the South Pole, is a giant natural laboratory to study the earth and its atmosphere, and changes in the environment globally, including changes related to human activities. Definitely right, this place only for researcher who make experiment or explore to find secret in antartica.

Antarctica is the most remote contradictory continent in the world. Very beautiful and virgin, but very unfriendly. This is the most stormy and coldest place on earth, as well as the most fragile and sensitive. The lowest rainfall compared to any continent, but the ice contains 70 percent of fresh water on the planet. With an average thickness of about 2,200 meters, the ice makes Antarctica the highest continent in the world, with an altitude of about 2,300 meters above sea level.
This continent is also the fifth largest continent in the world. Wow, you won't survive if you live at that place.

Here are 10 unique facts that you may not know much about Antarctica.

1. 53 million years ago, Antarctica was so warm that coconut trees grew along the coast. The temperature on this continent has been above 20 degrees Celsius.

2. Antarctica is the coldest continent, temperatures in winter can reach - 73 degrees Celsius. The coldest temperature record was on July 21, 1983 which was recorded by Russia's Vostok Station on the continent, around - 89.2 degrees C. The researcher from russia has been built a station in this continent to study more about it.

3. 70 percent of fresh water on planet earth is found in ice sheets covering Antarctica. In some places, the thickness of ice in Antarctica can reach 4 km. If the ice in Antarctica melts, the world's sea level will rise 60-65 meters. Only less than 2% of the Antarctic region is not covered in ice, including McMurdo Dry Valleys which is called the driest place in the world. McMurdo Dry Valley is a snowless valley in Antarctica located west of McMurdo Sound at Victoria Land. This dry valley has very low humidity, and the surrounding mountains prevent the entry of ice from the nearest glacier. The stones in this valley are granite and gneis.

This region is one of the most extreme deserts in the world, and has several features such as Lake Vida (freshwater lake) and River Onyx (flow of melting water and the longest river in Antarctica). Photosynthetic endolytic bacteria are found to live on moist rocks and are protected from dry air.

4. Despite having extreme temperatures, there are 1,150 species of fungi that have been identified as surviving in Antarctica. The fungus can adapt perfectly to extreme low temperatures, as well as continuous and repetitive freezing and thawing cycles.

5. Antarctica has all the time zones on the earth. All the longitude that we use to determine the time zone meet at both poles, North and South.

6. Tens of thousands of families live in the Arctic Circle, which is also home to thousands of flora and fauna. However, no human being became a native of Antarctica. The original inhabitants are only algae, bacteria, mosses, lichens, two species of flower plants, and a handful of insect species.

7. Norwegian explorer, Roald Amundsen was the first human to reach the South Pole. He arrived on the continent on December 14, 1911 by sticking his national flag there.

8. Antarctica is not included in the territory of any country. In 1959 negotiations were held between twelve countries to sign the Antarctic Agreement which contained the continent for peace research activities. To this day, the agreement has been signed by 48 countries.

9. If the North Pole is surrounded by American, Asian and European-populated Continents, Antarctica is surrounded by the ocean, and is the most stormy region on planet earth. If the North Pole is actually a frozen sea, the South Pole is ice-covered land.

10. "Antarctica is called a pulsating continent," said Encyclopedia Britannica, because every year there is a buildup and shrinkage of the ice-covered outer coastline. At its peak, ice cubes can form off the coast as far as 1,600 kilometers. This expansion and shrinkage is six times that of the Arctic ice pack, so Antarctica is far more influential on global weather.

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