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August 20, 2018

korean grammar level 1-1

안녕하세요 여러분,  after you learn the basic introducing in Korean next step is grammar. Grammar is the most important thing in language, without it when you speak or make sentences will feel uncomfortable with your language. In this lesson, I try to make an easy way to make you understand with the grammar. This is a level 1 lesson, you will learn a basic grammar in the Korean language.

안녕하세요. = Hello. / Hi. / what’s up/ good morning. / good night. / good day
안녕+하세요 = 안녕하세요. [an-nyeong] [ha-se-yo]
안녕 = peace
하세요 = you do, did you?, please
안녕하세요 is a formal wy to make  greeting in. when someone say 안녕하세요, then you reply with안녕하세요.
A: 안녕하세요. [annyeong-haseyo] = Hello
B: 안녕하세요. [annyeong-haseyo] = hello
C. 감사합니다. = Thank you 감사 + 합니다 = 감사합니다. [gam-sa] [hap-ni-da] 감사 = appreciation 합니다 = I will do, I am doing 감사합니다 is a formal way (존댓말) which usually used in daily activities.
In Korean when you say “good bye” in a formal way, there is two kind expressions which can be used:
1. when your friend stay and you leave then you can say: 안녕히 계세요. [an-nyeong-hi -gye-se-yo ][good bye]
2. when you stay and other people leave then you can say : 안녕히 가세요. [an-nyeong-hi-ga-se-yo] [good bye]

네 / 아니요
In Korean , ―Yes is 네 [ne] and ―no is 아니요 [aniyo] in a formal way.
In Korean when people say네 , this is not like you say yes in English and neither아니요 .because in korean 네 means you agree with somebody said as same as 아니요 express that you have different opinion with somebody said.
For example, when someone ask: don’t you like milk? (우유안 좋아해요? [u-yu an jo-a-hae-yo?] if your answer is no I don’t you should say네
커피 좋아해요? [keo-pi jo-a-hae-yo?] = do you like coffee?
네. 좋아해요. [ne. jo-a-hae-yo] = Yes I like coffee
커피 좋아해요? [keo-pi jo-a-hae-yo?] = do you like coffee?
아니요. 안 좋아해요. [aniyo. an jo-a-hae-yo] = no, I don’t
커피 안 좋아해요? [keo-pi an jo-a-hae-yo?] = don’t you like coffee?
아니요. 좋아해요. [aniyo. jo-a-hae-yo] = no, I like coffee
커피 안 좋아해요? [keo-pi an jo-a-hae-yo?] = you don’t like coffee?
네. 안 좋아해요. [ne. an jo-a-hae-yo] = yes I do
네 [ne] could be use ―right/really/I know/I am here!(when someone ask)/I’m understand
맞아요. People of korea usually place 맞아요 [ma-ja-yo] after 네 [ne]. 네, 맞아요. [ne, ma-ja-yo] = yes, right

죄송 합니다. [Joe-song-hap-ni-da]
죄송 합니다 = 죄송 plus 합니다. 죄 송 [joe-song] it means ―sorry, ―I am sorry or shame feeling and 합니다 [hap-ni-da] means do, so죄송 합니다 [joe-song-hap-ni-da] means I am sorry
죄송 합니다 not always mean “sorry” although 죄송 합니다 [joe-song-hap-ni-da] is literally mean ―sorry, you can’t use 죄송 합니다 when you want to say “I am sorry to hear that” this is why 죄송 합니다 only mean I am sorry.
In English you can say “excuse me” in this following situation:
1) when you pass crowd of people
2) when you want to leave room/class
3) when you want to draw attention to someone and talk to them
4) when you want to call waiters in restaurant
In korean 저 기요 [jeo-gi-yo] is an expression which can use in situation number 3 and 4. Number 1 and 2 you can use : 잠시 만요. [cam-si-man-yo] (means: ―in a minute) 죄송 합니다. [Joe-song-ham-ni-da] (literally mean: ―sorry, I want to pass) 잠깐 만요. [cam-kkan-man-yo] (literally mean: ―wait a sec)[wait a sec I want to pass]

이에요 / 예요 [i-e-yo / ye-yo]
이에요 dan 예요 = is/am/are
example : 이거 ABC 예요. [I-geo ABC-ye-yo] = this is ABC.
To decide which word you will use 이에요 [i-e-yo] or 예요 [ye- yo] depend on the end of the word, if end with consonant use이 에요[i-e-yo],  if end with vowel use예요 [ye-yo].
End  consonant + 이에요 [i-e-yo]
Vowel  + 예요 [ye-yo]
물이 에요. = + 물 이에요 [mul + i-e-yo] (Ini) this is water
가방 이에요. = 가방 이에요 [ga-bang + i-e-yo] this is bag.
사무실 이에요. = 사무실 이에요 [sa-mu-sil + i-e-yo] this is office
학교 예요. = 학교 예요 [hak-gyo + ye-yo] this is school
저예요. = 저 예요 [jeo + ye-yo] this is me
You can make a question using 이에요 and 예요 with just increasing your voice in the end of sentence.
물이 에요. [Mul-i-e-yo] = this is water. 물이 에요? [Mul-i-e-yo?] = is that water?
학교 예요. [Hak-gyo-ye-yo] = this is school. 학교 예요? [Hak-yo-ye-yo] = is that school? Are you in school now?
뭐 [MWO] = what 뭐예요? [MWO-ye-yo?] = what is that?

이거 [i-geo] = this is, this one
이 [i] (―this) + 것 [geot] (―hal‖) = 이것 [i-geot] –> 이거 [i-geo]
Contoh Kalimat :
이거 책이에요. [i-geo chaek-i-e-yo] = this is a book
이거 카메라예요. [i-geo ka-me-ra-ye-yo] = this is camera
이거 커피예요. [i-geo keo-pi-ye-yo] = this is coffee
이거 사전이에요. [i-geo sa-jeon i e yo] = this is a dictionary
이거 뭐예요? [i-geo mwo-ye-yo?] = what is this?
We already know how to make question with , 뭐예요? [mwo-ye-yo?] what is that? you can add 이거 [i-geo] before it to ask “what is this”
이거 뭐예요? [i-geo mwo-ye-yo?] = what is this?
이거 핸드폰이에요. [i-geo haen-deu-pon-i-e-yo] = this is a phone
이거 뭐예요? [i-geo mwo-ye-yo?] = what is this? 이거 물이에요. [i-geo mul-i-e-yo] = this is water
이거 뭐예요? [i-geo mwo-ye-yo?] = what is this? 이거 커피예요. [i-geo keo-pi-ye-yo] = this is coffee.

To make answer ‘no’
이거 커피예요? [i-geo keo-pi-ye-yo?] = is this coffee?
아니요. 이거 물이에요. [ani yo. i-geo mul-i-e-yo] = no this is water

To make answer ‘yes’
이거 커피예요? [i-geo keo-pi-ye-yo?] = is this coffee?
네. 맞아요. 이거 커피예요. [ne. ma ja yo. i-geo keo-pi-ye-yo] = yes, this is coffee


이, 그, and 저
In this section we can learn how to say this, that and there
Example  :
이 [i] = this (near you)
그 [geu] = that (near sombody)
저 [jeo] = that (there) far from both
이, 그, and 저 in Korean just as clue word, if you want to say “this is/this one” simply at 거 [geo] or 것 [geot] after noun
거 [geo] = 것 [geot] = thing, goods, mix with 이 [i] = this 이 + 것 = 이것 [i-geot] or 이거 [i-geo] = this is
그 [geu] = that 그 + 것 = 그것 [geu-geot] or 그거 [geu-geo] =that, that one,
저 [jeo] = there, 저 + 것 = 저것 [geu-geot] or 저거 [geu-geo] = over there

example 사람 [sa-ram] someone
이 사람 [I sa ram] = this man
그 사람 [geu- sa-ram] = that man
저 사람 [ceo-sa-ram] = man right there


아니에요 [a ni e yo] = no, not this, not you
아니에요 [a ni e yo] is present form in formal way
noun + 아니에요 = not  + noun
example : 저 아니에요. [jeo a ni e yo] = this is not me
우유 아니에요. [u-yu a ni e yo] = not milk.
물 아니에요. [mul a ni e yo] = not water
This is not milk. = 이거 우유 아니에요. [i-geo u-yu a ni e yo]
student = 학생 [hak-saeng]
not student = 학생 아니에요 [hak-saeng a ni e yo]
I am not a student = 저 학생 아니에요. [jeo hak-saeng a ni e yo]
drink = 술 [sul]
not drink = 술 아니에요 [sul a ni e yo]
this is not drink = 저거 술 아니에요. [jeo-geo sul a ni e yo]
cat = 고양이 [geo- yang i]
not a cat = 고양이 아니에요 [geo yang i a ni e yo]
that is not a cat = 그거 고양이 아니에요. [geu-geo geo yang i a ni e yo]


Topic particle 은 [eun] / 는 [neun]
This particle which used at the end of noun.
Word end with consonant + -은
Word end with vowel + -는
가방 [ga-bang] + 은 [eun]
나 [na] + 는 [neun]
Noun end with 은 [eun] atau 는 [neun] usually (but not always) example:
저 [jeo] = i 저 + 는 [neun] = 저는 [jeo-neun] = the topic is “I”
저는 학생이에요. [jeo-neun hak-saeng-i-e-yo] = I am a student ―word “I” is a subject
Sometime Korean is unique like this:
내일은 저는 일해요. [nae-il-eun jeo-neun il-hae-yo] = topic is ‖tommorow‖, I work.‖ here, 내일 [nae-il], tommorow, followed by 은 [eun], as main topic not  as subject  일하다 [il-ha-da

Subject particle 이 [i] / 가 [ga] subject particle more simple than topic particle :
Word end with consonant + -이
Word end with vowel + -가
가방 [ga-bang] + 이 [i]
학교 [hak-gyo] + 가 [ga]
The basic is,
topic particle (은/는) decide main topic of sentence
and subject particle (이/가) refers to subject of sentence
이거 [i-geo] = this / 사과 [sa-gwa] = apple / 예요 [ye-yo] = is/am/are
이거 사과예요. [i-geo sa-gwa-ye-yo] = this is apple
You can add 은/는 to this sentence, and subject of sentence is 이거, because ends with vowel then add -는. 이거는 사과예요. [i-geo-NEUN sa-gwa-ye-yo] = this is apple.
Example :
이거 커피예요. [i-geo keo-pi-ye-yo] (= this is coffee)
이거는 물이에요. [i-geo-NEUN mul-i-e-yo] = this is water
이거는 오렌지주스예요. [i-geo-NEUN o-ren-ji-ju-seu-ye-yo] = this is orange juice
이거는 뭐예요? [i-geo-NEUN mwo-ye-yo?] = what is this
Example in sentence:
1) 오늘 날씨 좋네요. [o-neul nal-ssi jot-ne-yo] today the weather is good
2) 오늘은 날씨 좋네요. [o-neul-EUN nal-ssi jot-ne-yo] (the weather was bad before but today is good )
3) 오늘 날씨는 좋네요. [o-neul nal-ssi-NEUN jot-ne-yo] (today the weather is good but not exactly the others day). Because this particle (은/는) could give different meaning in conversation


―있어요‖ [i-sseo-yo] dan ―없어요‖ [EOP-sseo-yo]
In this lesson we will learn how we express 있어요 [i-sseo-yo] and 없어요 [EOP-sseo-yo] if you want to speak about something exist or not you can use this formula
있어요 [i-sseo-yo] based on 있다 [it-da], and tell that something exists 있어요 < -> 없어요[I-sseo-yo] [EOP-sseo-yo
있어요 [i-sseo-yo]
물 [mul] = water / 친구 [chin-gu] = friend / 시간 [si-gan] = time
You can just add 있어요 at the end word you refers to
1. 물 있어요. [mul i-sseo-yo] = there  is water /I have water / they have water
2. 물 있어요? [muli- sseo-yo?] = Is there water? / Do you have water? / Do they have water?
3. 친구 있어요. [Chin-gu i-sseo-yo] = I have friend
4. 친구 있어요? [Chin-gu i-sseo-yo?] = do you have friend? / do  they have water?
5. 시간 있어요. [Si-gan i-sseo-yo] = there is a time
없어요 [EOP-sseo-yo]
1. 시간 없어요. [Si-gan EOP-sseo-yo] = there is no time
2. 친구 없어요. [Dagu-gu EOP-sseo-yo] = I have no friend


Now we will learn how to say “please give me” 주세요 [ju-se-yo] = please give me
Example :
J: 사과 있어요? [Sa-GWA i-sseo-yo?] = Do you have apple?
B: 네. 사과 있어요. [Ne. sa-GWA i-sseo-yo] = yes, we do
J: 사과 주세요. [Sa-GWA ju-se-yo.] = please give some apple
** there is no rule between singular and plural in noun Korean
J: 커피 있어요? [Keo-pi i-sseo-yo?] = do you have coffee?
B: 아니요. 커피 없어요. [An-i-yo. Keo-pi EOP-seo-yo] = no, we don’t
J: 우유 있어요? [U-yu i-sseo-yo?] = do you have milk?
B: 네. 우유 있어요. [Ne. u-yu i-sseo-yo] =. Yes we do
J: 우유 주세요. [U-yu ju-se-yo.] = please give me milk

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